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Robin: Design Goals and Rationale

This document documents some of the design goals and rationale for the design of Robin 0.6. The contents are not well organized, and the document is not very comprehensive.

In this document, "Robin" refers to the Robin programming language version 0.6.

Robin is excessively principled

Many times I have encountered some badly designed corner of a programming language or system and have said to myself, "No! This is categorically wrong. Programming languages should never do this. A correct design would..." et cetera, et cetera.

Robin is, in some sense, the result of recording various instances of this and putting them together in a single language. (Plus some random stuff that I'm not sure how it ended up in here.)

How well does the result cohere? Not really.

It started off as an idea for how I would like to design an operating system based on Pixley. It is no longer an operating system design, but the event-driven portion of it is still reminiscent of that.

Note that, recently (2020), I wrote up a list of Programming Language Feature Desiderata. Robin ticks many of the boxes on that list; however, there are several parts of the underlying design that I'm not entirely pleased with.

The case for homoiconicity

Either a language is homoiconic or it isn't.

(At least, that was what I was thinking when I picked the S-expression-based syntax for Robin. I now think the situation is more nuanced than that.)

I often find homoiconic languages hard to read. But having thought about it at some point, I concluded that, if I had to pick one of homoiconic or not-homoiconic as being "better" in some absolute sense, I would have to pick homoiconic.

Because suppose the language isn't homoiconic. In this case, it still has a syntax, and this syntax is canonical. And the essence of the syntax can be described with an AST, and it's likely the AST can be expressed in the language itself. Possibly even in the standard libraries of the language there is a parser for the language that produces this AST.

Still, that AST is not canonical in the way that the syntax is. You can pick other ASTs that capture the syntax equally well.

But if the language is homoiconic, then the language defines both the syntax and the AST structure canonically.

Maybe you define a syntactic sugar on top of this AST. This sugar is not canonical, but that is more appropriate (somehow) than the AST being not canonical.

There may have been more to this argument than this, but if so I've forgotten it at the moment.

The case for referential transparency

Very few languages actually forbid mutable data. What they do instead is provide something like set! but discourage it.

But unless you actually forbid it, you leave the door open for breaking referential transparency. Even if you write purely functional programs, there is always a doubt when mixing them with other code: what if the function that's being passed to my higher-order function is destructively updating something somewhere? This interferes with reasoning about the code. The statements you make have to be under the assumption that no one is doing that.

Haskell is one of the few languages that gets this right. Unfortunately Haskell is not homoiconic, and its type system and lazy evaluation are oftentimes not things I'm looking for, and provide a distraction to what I'm trying to say with a piece of code.

(Also, Haskell is, as Simon Peyton Jones has remarked, "the world's finest imperative language". I'm looking for the world's finest functional language though, right?)

Fexpr as fundamental abstraction

This is certainly the most unorthodox feature, the one that departs the most from Scheme et al. (It does, however, land us squarely in the land of "Fexpr languages" like Kernel, but I was not aware of that when this design choice was made.)

It allows the language to have no "special forms" whatsoever. (Scheme would need at least define-syntax if it wanted to define if, set!, and the other parts of its syntax, as fexprs.)

Whether having no special forms whatsoever is advantageous in any way, or not, remains to be seen.

One upshot is that any functionality expressible in the Robin expression language, can be passed to a fexpr or macro as a parameter, or returned from an operator application.

One also thinks it might make analysis of the code simpler — a parser or analyzer doesn't need to account for any special forms.

But, in practice, since everything is a fexpr, eval is called a lot, and eval poses a significant problem for analysis.

But also in practice, an analysis tool will expect that the "small" library has been loaded, and that function calls will use fun as defined there, and thus can base their analysis on the semantics of that fexpr without caring about its definition, or that its definition contains eval.

So the basic saving grace here is this: we can define the forms of the language using fexprs without necessarily implementing them using fexpr. As long as the implementation's behaviour matches what the fexpr version specifies, it's compatible behaviour and thus an allowable implementation.

No variable numbers of parameters

In a Scheme-like language, the list of parameters passed to a function is itself naturally a list. Robin in some ways tries to deny this, rather than embracing it as Lisp and Scheme do.

It does so in the name of correctness: it is incorrect to pass more arguments to a function, than it expects, so you should be informed of this by means of an error condition.

But it goes further, with the doctrine that no function should have a variable number of arguments. If you want a function to work on a variable number of values, you should pass that function a list.

The reason for this is generally to make analysis easier. This analsysi includes syntax (should it ever become relevant): each function has constant number of parameters means the parameters can be parsed deterministically, without needing extra syntax such as parens to tell when they stop.

There is also the matter of generality. Say a function works on, not a single set of variable nuber of values, but two sets of different kinds of data. The natural solution would be to pass it two lists. Parsing the arguments as a single list would allow or perhaps even encourage passing both kinds of data in the argument liker, perhaps with some kind of delimiter, but this is a clumsy and stipulative solution which should be avoided.

By going this route, Robin does give up a certain kind of simplicity. Functions like add and multiply can naturally be thought of as taking any number of parameters. compose, a function to compose functions, would too.

But this is because these functions work on monoids. And not all functions work on monoids (divide, for example, is not associative.) And when we do have functions that work this way, we usually name them differently: sum and product (and for functions it could be seq or pipe.) We can use these names for the distinct versions of these functions that take lists, and implement them with general monoidal processing machinery a la mconcat.

Module System

Robin's module system is this: Robin does not have a module system.

We're still working this out, so bear with us. Let's start with some fundamental principles of Robin. You may love them or think they are stupid (I can't tell, myself,) but they are what they are.

  • The core Robin language includes only a handful of symbols, called intrinsics. These represent functionality that would be impossible or highly impractical to write in Robin itself.

  • A Robin program may, of course, define new symbols internal to that program, by assigning them meanings in its environment.

  • The Robin language expresses Robin programs; it does not express metadata about Robin programs.

  • Corollary: the contents of a Robin program is kept separate from the metadata about that Robin program.

  • Corollary: a Robin program that uses a symbol which is defined outside of that program does not, and in fact cannot, care where it is defined.

  • Corollary: dependencies between Robin (sub)programs and/or modules is an implementation-level concern, not a language-level concern.

  • Corollary: how the reference implementation solves the problem of dependencies between Robin programs is not necessarily how any other implementation should solve the problem.

  • ... all the Robin language really "knows" is that a Robin program may be split up into seperate "files" (where "file" means "input of program text into the implementation", I guess.)

  • Robin recognizes a set of symbols, currently called stdlib, that (should) have a (relatively) fixed meaning in all Robin programs, whether they are used in any given program or not.

  • Note (that should be elsewhere?): most of the operators defined in stdlib are supposed to, intentionally, take a fixed number of arguments for some reason (nominally, to make some kind of future static analysis easier.)

  • It is something like Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Robin's intrinsics make programming possible (barely possible — survival-level.) Robin's stdlib makes programming liveable. If there was another level, it might make programming pleasant, even.

Some implications of this setup in practice are:

  • If you distribute a Robin program to someone else, you need to tell them (somehow) what other Robin (sub)programs/modules it depends on.

  • Actually this is hardly different from C, where dependency information is encoded both in #include's and in a Makefile or similar, which links in the correct modules. The difference in Robin is simply that there are no #includes.

  • Other languages, such as Haskell and Python, try to include all dependency information in the program source code itself. This does away with Makefile-type dependency information, but at the cost of entangling programs and metadata about programs into the same files, into the same language grammar.

  • It would be entirely possible to define a "Robin dependency language" which:

    • describes the dependencies between different Robin programs
    • informs a tool like make
    • uses Robin's syntax
    • and perhaps even embeds Robin as an embedded language (and thus perhaps appears as a Robin "top-level form")

    ...but, the important thing to note is that such a language would not be Robin itself.

  • Any symbol in stdlib could be implemented in any language whatsoever, as long as the implementation knows what the semantics of the symbol is.

  • To signal that a program requires some symbol to be defined before the program can be considered meaningful, it may assert that the symbol is defined, using the assert top-level form.

The more pragmatic aspect of how the reference implementation currently handles the issue of dependencies between Robin programs, keeping in mind that this is an implementation issue and not a language issue, and thus that the reference implementation is not normative in this regard:

  • Each symbol defined in the Robin stdlib is written in its own Robin source file in the stdlib subdirectory, bundled along with tests for it.

  • All of the symbols in the stdlib directory are implemented in Robin. This is because, being a reference implementation, they are "executable specifications" rather than production code. They are supposed to be correct and simple and understandable, rather than performant.

  • Groups of symbols in the stdlib are collected into files called "packages", in the pkg subdirectory, which are simply concatenations, topologically sorted by dependency, of those individual files in the stdlib subdirectory. (These packages are built both by ./ and ./

  • The groupings of symbols within a package follow certain themes, but are largely arbitrary, due to the ease with which a particular symbol could be grouped into two different packages by theme, and partly done for the convenience of the test suite, and to make dependencies work out "nicely", so that symbols can be implemented in terms of other symbols.

  • However, this package has the following justification: The package small is identified as a fairly minimal set of symbols to make programming tolerable (somewhere between possible and liveable in that "Maslow's hierarchy" analogy.) No symbol in it depends on any symbol defined in any other package; only intrinsics and other symbols in small. The functions in the small package have also been implemented directly in Haskell, in the reference interpreter.

Here is a graphical depiction of the "hierarchy" of defined symbols (it's in HTML because it'd be trickier to depict in plain text or Markdown.)

Standard Library

(boolean) and or xor not boolean?

(list) empty? map fold reverse filter find append elem? length index take-while drop-while first rest last prefix? flatten

(alist) lookup extend delete

(env) env? bound? export sandbox unbind unshadow

(arith) abs add > >= < <= multiply divide remainder

(misc) itoa

"Small" Library
literal list bind env let choose bind-args
head tail prepend list? symbol? operator? number? equal? subtract sign fexpr eval if abort recover