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Version 2.0 (c)2003-2013 Chris Pressey, Cat's Eye Technologies. All rights reserved.
(BSD-style license. See file Console/ for full license info.)

What is Console::Virtual?

Console::Virtual is a lightweight, abstract, function-based (as opposed to object-oriented) Perl interface for accessing unbuffered keyboard input and an addressable screen display. Together, these facilities are thought of as a 'virtual console,' regardless of what underlying technologies implement it.

Console::Virtual is intended to be only a simple redirection layer that insulates the programmer from whatever screen-oriented mechanisms are actually installed at the site.

On most modern systems, Perl's Curses module is usually installed, or easy to install via the package system, and for that reason, Console::Virtual defaults to using it as its backend.

On some systems, though (and please understand this was more true when this interface was first written), Curses is impractical to install, or installed incorrectly. Perl has other ways of working with an addressable screen, such as Term::Cap and Term::Screen (part of the Perl 5.8.8 core libraries), but they too on occasion are not installed correctly. Further, they are lacking in abstraction -- they are based on the starting assumption of a Unix-like terminal interface. Not all systems look at the world this way, Windows being one example.

Because I was writing a console-based application which was to be highly portable, I needed a layer which would automatically decide which unbuffered- input and screen-addressing methods were appropriate for the site, and provide a small, simple, abstract, portable interface to delegate to those methods.


To use Console::Virtual, you will either have to install it somewhere in Perl's include path (you can do this by copying the Console directory and all of its contents to e.g. /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005), or alternately, give Perl a new include path which contains the Console directory. As usual, there is more than one way to do this: you can pass the -I flag to the perl executable, or you can add a line like BEGIN { push @INC, $dir } to your script. If you want to just keep the Console directory in the same directory as your script, you can add BEGIN { use File::Basename; push @INC, dirname($0) } instead.

Then you can insert the following into your Perl script to use it:

use Console::Virtual 2.0
     qw(getkey display gotoxy clrscr clreol
        normal inverse bold color update_display

Console::Virtual first tries to use Curses, if it's installed. If not, and it detects that it's running on a Win32 system, it tries to use Win32::Console. If not, it tries using Term::Screen if that's installed. If not, it then checks to see if POSIX is available, that TERM is set in the environment, and that /etc/termcap exists; if so, it uses POSIX raw input and it shells the external command tput, buffering the result, for output.

Failing all of that, if Console::Virtual can't find anything that suits your platform, it will produce a warning, carry on regardless, and assume that it is running on a teletype. It will emulate an addressable screen on the standard output stream the best way it knows how: the entire screen will be re-printed whenever an update is requested. Also, the user will have to tolerate line-buffered input, where a carriage return must be issued before keystrokes will be responded to. If this saddens you, be thankful that teletypes are rare these days. (There are some of us who are frankly more saddened by the fact that teletypes are rare these days.)

A specific input or display methodology can be specified by setting values in the %Console::Virtual::setup hash before using Console::Virtual. You probably shouldn't do this if you want to retain portability; the intent of it is to allow the end user to tailor their local copy of a script, forcing it to pick some specific implementation, presumably in preference to some other which would normally be preferred, but is (for whatever reason) not desired. Note that when doing this, you can mix different regimens for input, display, and color; however, unless you know what you're doing, you probably shouldn't, as you're likely to get really weird results. See the code for more details.

Any functions that you don't need to access can be left out of the qw() list. In fact, the entire list can be omitted, in which case none of these names will be imported into your namespace. In that case, you'll have to fully qualify them (like Console::Virtual::gotoxy()) to use them.

Input Functions:

getkey()          wait for keystroke; don't wait for ENTER or echo

Output Functions:

clrscr()          clear the screen
clreol()          clear to end of line
display(@list)    display all strings in @list at screen cursor
gotoxy($x,$y)     move the cursor to the 1-based (x,y) coordinate
bold()            set display style to bold
inverse()         set display style to inverted
normal()          set display style back to normal
update_display()  explicitly refresh the screen (Curses & Teletype need this)
color($f,$b)      sets the colors of text about to be displayed
vsleep($s)        sleep for $s seconds (may be a fraction)

Acceptable arguments for $f and $b in color() are 'black', 'red', 'blue', 'purple', 'green', 'brown', 'aqua', 'grey', 'pink', 'sky' (blue), 'magenta', 'lime' (green), 'yellow', 'cyan', and 'white'. Of course, not all terminals can display this many colors (or any color at all,) in which case color will be crudely approximated.

Since the library is intended to be simple and abstract, that's all there is; nothing fancy enough to be severely broken, no capability predicates to check, no overkill object-oriented interface to follow.

Differences with Term::Screen

Console::Virtual is designed to be a (portable) abstraction layer, whereas Term::Screen is not. There are several 'holes' in the interfaces provided by Term::Screen; that is, actions which are not prohibited as they probably ought to be. In fact, last I checked, they are encouraged.

These actions are prohibited in Console::Virtual. Specifically, you should not simply use print to place text on the display device; you must instead use display(). If you do not do this, the output of your program will look funny (to say the least) when the end user is using Curses, or a teletype, or some future output technology that Console::Virtual one day delegates to. By the same token, you must occasionally use update_display() for the benefit of Curses and other output regimens which require explicit refresh. Calling update_display() must be done when the cursor is to be seen, by the user, to move. It is also a good idea to do it in anticipation of a long upcoming delay in the program (e.g. intense computation.)

A Note on Version Numbers

There was a point in time when I thought YYYY.MMDD was the Only Version Number You'd Ever Need. My opinion on that has changed. Therefore, I am changing the version numbering for Console::Virtual; this is version 2.0.

Alas, this plays havoc with logic that tries to decide which version of a package is more recent than another, as 2007.1122 > 2.0. However, there are two things that soften the blow:

  • A local copy of this module ships with all Cat's Eye Technologies projects that rely on it.
  • I don't think anyone else actually uses this module. Hooray!
  • The vsleep function was introduced in 2.0. To ensure that you are really getting version 2.x or later, import vsleep in your use Console::Virtual 2.0.

But if you are saying use Console::Virtual 2007.1122 in your script and you want to use the new 2.0 version, you will have to change the version number in that line.


  • v2001.0123: Renamed this module to _Console::Virtual.
  • v2001.0124: fixed some namespace issues w.r.t. Win32.
  • v2001.0127: added Color subfunctionality.
  • v2003.0325: fixed up and readme.txt (no changes to code)
  • v2007.1122: renamed to Console::Virtual, prettied readme.txt. Also updated language in BSD license (no "REGENTS".)
  • v2007.1122-YPSILAXDEV: made die turn off Curses before dying. Converted README to Markdown.
  • v2.0: added vsleep. Did horrific thing to version number.

More Information

The latest version of Console::Virtual can be found at: