Convert CRLF line terminators to LFs.
catseye
9 years ago

0 | Troupe | |

1 | ====== | |

2 | ||

3 | Troupe is an esolang designed by Chris Pressey on June 25, 2012, in Winnipeg, | |

4 | Canada. | |

5 | ||

6 | The name of this esolang is **Troupe** in the UK and Canada and Australia, | |

7 | but in the USA, where they drop the "u" in words where it follows an "o", its | |

8 | name is **Trope**. | |

9 | ||

10 | Part I. Hedgehogs | |

11 | ----------------- | |

12 | ||

13 | We have a troupe of hedgehogs. Each has a position, a colour (in the USA: | |

14 | color), a possible hedgehog to its left, and a possible hedgehog to its | |

15 | right. In this troupe, there is only one hedgehog which has no hedgehog to | |

16 | its left, and only one hedgehog which has no hedgehog to its right, and the | |

17 | following is true: for each hedgehog X, if Y is the hedgehog to X's right | |

18 | (resp. left), then X is the hedgehog to Y's left (resp. right). (i.e. the | |

19 | hedgehogs are in a line formation.) | |

20 | ||

21 | For some hedgehog X, the hedgehog to X's left and the hedgehog to X's right | |

22 | are the *neighbours* (in the USA: *neighbors*) of X. | |

23 | ||

24 | We may say that a hedgehog is "one of the hedgehogs to the left" (resp. | |

25 | "right") of some other hedgehog; the meaning of this should be evident — it | |

26 | is just the transitive closure of "to its left" (resp. right). | |

27 | ||

28 | All hedgehogs share a fixed speed at which they move (when they move), and a | |

29 | fixed radius. Also, the troupe consists of a finite number of hedgehogs at | |

30 | all times, and their colours come from a finite set of possible colours that | |

31 | can be distinguished from one another. (And that there is one distinguished | |

32 | "default" colour, which we will arbitrarily call "white".) | |

33 | ||

34 | In the troupe, at any given time, there is either exactly one *leader* | |

35 | hedgehog, or exactly one *leader-elect* hedgehog; never both and never | |

36 | neither. | |

37 | ||

38 | The leader hedgehog, when it exists, has a velocity. It moves through space | |

39 | with this velocity, changing its position. All other hedgehogs in the troupe | |

40 | try to "follow" it, which means the following: | |

41 | ||

42 | Each hedgehog moves to minimize the distance between it and one of its | |

43 | neighbours (up to a certain point: if the distance between it and its | |

44 | neighbour is less than three times the hedgehog radius, it does not bother | |

45 | to move at all.) | |

46 | ||

47 | The neighbour it moves toward is the hedgehog on its left (resp. right), if | |

48 | the leader is one of the hedgehogs to the left (resp. right). | |

49 | ||

50 | Part II. Faery Rings | |

51 | -------------------- | |

52 | ||

53 | We also have a set of faery rings. Each ring has a fixed position, radius, | |

54 | inner colour, and outer colour; it optionally has a signpost, a unit vector | |

55 | pointing in any direction; and it optionally has an orientation, which is | |

56 | either clockwise or counterclockwise. | |

57 | ||

58 | Faery rings may not intersect each other *except* if both rings have | |

59 | precisely the same position and radius *and* if they have different outer | |

60 | colours. (They may have the same inner colour.) | |

61 | ||

62 | When a leader hedgehog intersects a faery ring (i.e. when the distance | |

63 | between the hedgehog is less than the sum of the hedgehog radius and the | |

64 | particular ring's radius), and if the outer colour of the faery ring is the | |

65 | same as the colour of the leader hedgehog, the following things happen, in | |

66 | this order: | |

67 | ||

68 | * The faery ring, and all faery rings which intersect it, become temporarily | |

69 | inactive, in that intersection with a hedgehog does not set off this same | |

70 | sequence of events until it becomes active again. | |

71 | ||

72 | * The leader hedgehog's colour is changed to the inner colour of the faery | |

73 | ring. | |

74 | ||

75 | * If the faery ring has a counterclockwise (resp. clockwise) orientation, | |

76 | then the hedgehog to the leader hedgehog's left (resp. right) becomes | |

77 | the leader-elect hedgehog. | |

78 | ||

79 | (If there *is* no hedgehog to the left (resp. right) of the leader | |

80 | hedgehog, then one pops into existence, at the same position as the | |

81 | leader hedgehog, and with a white colouring; and it becomes the | |

82 | leader-elect hedgehog.) | |

83 | ||

84 | When the set of hedgehogs has a leader-elect, the leader-elect moves to | |

85 | minimize its distance to the faery ring that made it leader-elect, and | |

86 | all other hedgehogs follow the leader-elect, as described above. | |

87 | ||

88 | Once the leader-elect hedgehog intersects the faery ring which made it | |

89 | the leader-elect (which it will eventually, as it moves to minimize the | |

90 | distance), it becomes the leader hedgehog. | |

91 | ||

92 | * If the faery ring has a signpost, the leader hedgehog is given a velocity | |

93 | in accordance with the direction of the signpost. | |

94 | ||

95 | * Once the leader hedgehog no longer intersects the faery ring, the faery | |

96 | ring, and all rings that it intersects, become active once again. | |

97 | ||

98 | Part III. Hills | |

99 | --------------- | |

100 | ||

101 | There are also any number of hills, each with a fixed position and radius. | |

102 | These serve as goals; when the leader hedgehog reaches a hill, the troupe's | |

103 | quest is over, and they are free to break formation and nibble on clover or | |

104 | whatever it is that hedgehogs do for fun. | |

105 | ||

106 | Part IV. Computational Class | |

107 | ---------------------------- | |

108 | ||

109 | The system outlined above should be Turing-complete, as it maps quite | |

110 | readily to the definition of a Turing machine. | |

111 | ||

112 | The line of hedgehogs serves as the tape, with their colours being symbols on | |

113 | the tape, and the leader being the tape head. | |

114 | ||

115 | The faery rings implement state transition rules, or rather, the parts of | |

116 | transition rules that say "If the symbol on the tape is..." (which in our | |

117 | system translates to "If the leader hedgehog is coloured...") Overlapped | |

118 | faery rings of all possible colours make for a traditional transition rule. | |

119 | ||

120 | The state itself is encoded by the leader's position and velocity and which | |

121 | faery ring they're headed toward next. As long as the faery rings are | |

122 | arranged appropriately, we can guarantee that, when the leader hedgehog | |

123 | leaves a faery ring, possibly with a new velocity, it is bound to intersect | |

124 | another faery ring eventually. An example of an appropriate arrangement is: | |

125 | ||

126 | * The signpost in each faery ring points in a cardinal direction. | |

127 | ||

128 | * All faery rings have the same radius. | |

129 | ||

130 | * For each faery ring, there is another faery ring which shares at least | |

131 | one of its coordinates. | |

132 | ||

133 | Finally, the hills serve as halt states. | |

134 | ||

135 | Part V. Extras | |

136 | -------------- | |

137 | ||

138 | We can certainly allow for the presence of elements in this world which | |

139 | either do not affect the property of being Turing-complete, or if they do, | |

140 | are not required to be present in any particular instance of the world. | |

141 | ||

142 | ### Rest Areas ### | |

143 | ||

144 | A rest area has a fixed position and radius. | |

145 | ||

146 | If the leader hedgehog enters a rest area, it does not move until no | |

147 | hedgehog in the troupe is impelled to move (i.e. until all hedgehogs are | |

148 | within three times the hedgehog-radius of another hedgehog.) This allows | |

149 | the troupe to "catch up" with the leader. | |

150 | ||

151 | Part VI. Discussion | |

152 | ------------------- | |

153 | ||

154 | This system is, of course, crying out to be implemented with a visual | |

155 | animation of the hedgehogs moving around, possibly in a Java applet, or | |

156 | in an HTML5 canvas with Javascript. | |

157 | ||

158 | We have not specified the dimensionality of the space in which these things | |

159 | exist; certainly, two dimensions would be a reasonable restriction, | |

160 | especially for an animated visual implementation. | |

161 | ||

162 | The system probably continues to be Turing-complete in one dimension, but | |

163 | I have not convinced myself of that. One of the things that allows this | |

164 | (if it is true) is that hedgehogs are happily allowed to pass right through | |

165 | other hedgehogs as if they didn't exist. If this was not true, then a one- | |

166 | dimensional realization of this world is probably not Turing-complete. | |

167 | ||

168 | In two dimensions, however, even if hedgehogs are not allowed to pass | |

169 | through each other, the system is still Turing-complete (cf. Beturing), | |

170 | although we might have to add one proviso. Since, in order to really be | |

171 | Turing-complete, the troupe of hedgehogs needs to be able to grow without | |

172 | bound, it might become intractably large. When the leader hedgehog is not | |

173 | able to make progress because of some other hedgehog in its way, it should | |

174 | act as if it entered a rest area. Also, we may require some "jitter" be | |

175 | introduced in follower hedgehog movements, lest they get stuck. | |

176 | ||

177 | We may want to go further, and allow the space itself to expand whenever a | |

178 | hedgehog is added to the troupe — so long as all the relative directions | |

179 | between things are preserved, this should not affect the outcome. | |

180 | ||

181 | (The idea for this system came to me sort of all at once when I was thinking | |

182 | about Beturing, specifically that Beturing doesn't address the tape at all | |

183 | in its concerns about wire-crossing. I mean, don't we have to communicate | |

184 | to the tape somehow, and might not those lines of communicate cross other | |

185 | lines of communication? Then I thought, well, it can assume that the tape | |

186 | is *inside* the state pointer somehow. And the rest followed more-or-less | |

187 | naturally.) | |

188 | ||

189 | We have not specified, either, whether this system should be implemented with | |

190 | a discrete simulation or a continuous simulation. Actually, either should | |

191 | work, I think; and a continuous simulation would be somewhat interesting, if | |

192 | only for the fact that most language interpreters are discrete. A continuous | |

193 | simulation would use real numbers to measure both duration and distance, and | |

194 | real analysis techniques to discover the evolution of the system. Motion of | |

195 | the hedgehogs would be genuinely continuous except for the points where their | |

196 | velocities change due to one hedgehog approaching another too closely, etc. | |

197 | ||

198 | Nor have we said much about the topology of the space all of these things are | |

199 | in. Naturally, the space could be infinite, or it could be mapped onto a | |

200 | torus so that the hedgehogs "wrap around" at the edges. (The fact that the | |

201 | space is finite is not a problem w.r.t. Turing-completeness, so long as there | |

202 | are still an infinite number of possible coordinates, i.e. the space of real | |

203 | or rational numbers; integers, though, would be problematic in a space of | |

204 | finite extent.) Or the space could be mapped onto the surface of a sphere, | |

205 | with appropriate modifications. | |

206 | ||

207 | We have also not constrained the sets of faery rings and hills to be finite; | |

208 | so we could have an infinite number of them in an infinite space — but for | |

209 | correspondence with a Turing machine, these should probably be restricted to | |

210 | infinite sets. (Otherwise, if you have, say, an uncountable set of faery | |

211 | rings, specified non-constructively, you could encode all possible | |

212 | computations just in them, and the behaviour of the hedgehogs becomes | |

213 | essentially moot.) | |

214 | ||

215 | The initial condition could either consist of the troupe having a leader | |

216 | hedgehog with an initial velocity, or a leader-elect hedgehog with an | |

217 | initially-selected faery ring to which it is attracted. The former is | |

218 | probably more "natural" for some definition of "natural". | |

0 | Troupe | |

1 | ====== | |

2 | ||

3 | Troupe is an esolang designed by Chris Pressey on June 25, 2012, in Winnipeg, | |

4 | Canada. | |

5 | ||

6 | The name of this esolang is **Troupe** in the UK and Canada and Australia, | |

7 | but in the USA, where they drop the "u" in words where it follows an "o", its | |

8 | name is **Trope**. | |

9 | ||

10 | Part I. Hedgehogs | |

11 | ----------------- | |

12 | ||

13 | We have a troupe of hedgehogs. Each has a position, a colour (in the USA: | |

14 | color), a possible hedgehog to its left, and a possible hedgehog to its | |

15 | right. In this troupe, there is only one hedgehog which has no hedgehog to | |

16 | its left, and only one hedgehog which has no hedgehog to its right, and the | |

17 | following is true: for each hedgehog X, if Y is the hedgehog to X's right | |

18 | (resp. left), then X is the hedgehog to Y's left (resp. right). (i.e. the | |

19 | hedgehogs are in a line formation.) | |

20 | ||

21 | For some hedgehog X, the hedgehog to X's left and the hedgehog to X's right | |

22 | are the *neighbours* (in the USA: *neighbors*) of X. | |

23 | ||

24 | We may say that a hedgehog is "one of the hedgehogs to the left" (resp. | |

25 | "right") of some other hedgehog; the meaning of this should be evident — it | |

26 | is just the transitive closure of "to its left" (resp. right). | |

27 | ||

28 | All hedgehogs share a fixed speed at which they move (when they move), and a | |

29 | fixed radius. Also, the troupe consists of a finite number of hedgehogs at | |

30 | all times, and their colours come from a finite set of possible colours that | |

31 | can be distinguished from one another. (And that there is one distinguished | |

32 | "default" colour, which we will arbitrarily call "white".) | |

33 | ||

34 | In the troupe, at any given time, there is either exactly one *leader* | |

35 | hedgehog, or exactly one *leader-elect* hedgehog; never both and never | |

36 | neither. | |

37 | ||

38 | The leader hedgehog, when it exists, has a velocity. It moves through space | |

39 | with this velocity, changing its position. All other hedgehogs in the troupe | |

40 | try to "follow" it, which means the following: | |

41 | ||

42 | Each hedgehog moves to minimize the distance between it and one of its | |

43 | neighbours (up to a certain point: if the distance between it and its | |

44 | neighbour is less than three times the hedgehog radius, it does not bother | |

45 | to move at all.) | |

46 | ||

47 | The neighbour it moves toward is the hedgehog on its left (resp. right), if | |

48 | the leader is one of the hedgehogs to the left (resp. right). | |

49 | ||

50 | Part II. Faery Rings | |

51 | -------------------- | |

52 | ||

53 | We also have a set of faery rings. Each ring has a fixed position, radius, | |

54 | inner colour, and outer colour; it optionally has a signpost, a unit vector | |

55 | pointing in any direction; and it optionally has an orientation, which is | |

56 | either clockwise or counterclockwise. | |

57 | ||

58 | Faery rings may not intersect each other *except* if both rings have | |

59 | precisely the same position and radius *and* if they have different outer | |

60 | colours. (They may have the same inner colour.) | |

61 | ||

62 | When a leader hedgehog intersects a faery ring (i.e. when the distance | |

63 | between the hedgehog is less than the sum of the hedgehog radius and the | |

64 | particular ring's radius), and if the outer colour of the faery ring is the | |

65 | same as the colour of the leader hedgehog, the following things happen, in | |

66 | this order: | |

67 | ||

68 | * The faery ring, and all faery rings which intersect it, become temporarily | |

69 | inactive, in that intersection with a hedgehog does not set off this same | |

70 | sequence of events until it becomes active again. | |

71 | ||

72 | * The leader hedgehog's colour is changed to the inner colour of the faery | |

73 | ring. | |

74 | ||

75 | * If the faery ring has a counterclockwise (resp. clockwise) orientation, | |

76 | then the hedgehog to the leader hedgehog's left (resp. right) becomes | |

77 | the leader-elect hedgehog. | |

78 | ||

79 | (If there *is* no hedgehog to the left (resp. right) of the leader | |

80 | hedgehog, then one pops into existence, at the same position as the | |

81 | leader hedgehog, and with a white colouring; and it becomes the | |

82 | leader-elect hedgehog.) | |

83 | ||

84 | When the set of hedgehogs has a leader-elect, the leader-elect moves to | |

85 | minimize its distance to the faery ring that made it leader-elect, and | |

86 | all other hedgehogs follow the leader-elect, as described above. | |

87 | ||

88 | Once the leader-elect hedgehog intersects the faery ring which made it | |

89 | the leader-elect (which it will eventually, as it moves to minimize the | |

90 | distance), it becomes the leader hedgehog. | |

91 | ||

92 | * If the faery ring has a signpost, the leader hedgehog is given a velocity | |

93 | in accordance with the direction of the signpost. | |

94 | ||

95 | * Once the leader hedgehog no longer intersects the faery ring, the faery | |

96 | ring, and all rings that it intersects, become active once again. | |

97 | ||

98 | Part III. Hills | |

99 | --------------- | |

100 | ||

101 | There are also any number of hills, each with a fixed position and radius. | |

102 | These serve as goals; when the leader hedgehog reaches a hill, the troupe's | |

103 | quest is over, and they are free to break formation and nibble on clover or | |

104 | whatever it is that hedgehogs do for fun. | |

105 | ||

106 | Part IV. Computational Class | |

107 | ---------------------------- | |

108 | ||

109 | The system outlined above should be Turing-complete, as it maps quite | |

110 | readily to the definition of a Turing machine. | |

111 | ||

112 | The line of hedgehogs serves as the tape, with their colours being symbols on | |

113 | the tape, and the leader being the tape head. | |

114 | ||

115 | The faery rings implement state transition rules, or rather, the parts of | |

116 | transition rules that say "If the symbol on the tape is..." (which in our | |

117 | system translates to "If the leader hedgehog is coloured...") Overlapped | |

118 | faery rings of all possible colours make for a traditional transition rule. | |

119 | ||

120 | The state itself is encoded by the leader's position and velocity and which | |

121 | faery ring they're headed toward next. As long as the faery rings are | |

122 | arranged appropriately, we can guarantee that, when the leader hedgehog | |

123 | leaves a faery ring, possibly with a new velocity, it is bound to intersect | |

124 | another faery ring eventually. An example of an appropriate arrangement is: | |

125 | ||

126 | * The signpost in each faery ring points in a cardinal direction. | |

127 | ||

128 | * All faery rings have the same radius. | |

129 | ||

130 | * For each faery ring, there is another faery ring which shares at least | |

131 | one of its coordinates. | |

132 | ||

133 | Finally, the hills serve as halt states. | |

134 | ||

135 | Part V. Extras | |

136 | -------------- | |

137 | ||

138 | We can certainly allow for the presence of elements in this world which | |

139 | either do not affect the property of being Turing-complete, or if they do, | |

140 | are not required to be present in any particular instance of the world. | |

141 | ||

142 | ### Rest Areas ### | |

143 | ||

144 | A rest area has a fixed position and radius. | |

145 | ||

146 | If the leader hedgehog enters a rest area, it does not move until no | |

147 | hedgehog in the troupe is impelled to move (i.e. until all hedgehogs are | |

148 | within three times the hedgehog-radius of another hedgehog.) This allows | |

149 | the troupe to "catch up" with the leader. | |

150 | ||

151 | Part VI. Discussion | |

152 | ------------------- | |

153 | ||

154 | This system is, of course, crying out to be implemented with a visual | |

155 | animation of the hedgehogs moving around, possibly in a Java applet, or | |

156 | in an HTML5 canvas with Javascript. | |

157 | ||

158 | We have not specified the dimensionality of the space in which these things | |

159 | exist; certainly, two dimensions would be a reasonable restriction, | |

160 | especially for an animated visual implementation. | |

161 | ||

162 | The system probably continues to be Turing-complete in one dimension, but | |

163 | I have not convinced myself of that. One of the things that allows this | |

164 | (if it is true) is that hedgehogs are happily allowed to pass right through | |

165 | other hedgehogs as if they didn't exist. If this was not true, then a one- | |

166 | dimensional realization of this world is probably not Turing-complete. | |

167 | ||

168 | In two dimensions, however, even if hedgehogs are not allowed to pass | |

169 | through each other, the system is still Turing-complete (cf. Beturing), | |

170 | although we might have to add one proviso. Since, in order to really be | |

171 | Turing-complete, the troupe of hedgehogs needs to be able to grow without | |

172 | bound, it might become intractably large. When the leader hedgehog is not | |

173 | able to make progress because of some other hedgehog in its way, it should | |

174 | act as if it entered a rest area. Also, we may require some "jitter" be | |

175 | introduced in follower hedgehog movements, lest they get stuck. | |

176 | ||

177 | We may want to go further, and allow the space itself to expand whenever a | |

178 | hedgehog is added to the troupe — so long as all the relative directions | |

179 | between things are preserved, this should not affect the outcome. | |

180 | ||

181 | (The idea for this system came to me sort of all at once when I was thinking | |

182 | about Beturing, specifically that Beturing doesn't address the tape at all | |

183 | in its concerns about wire-crossing. I mean, don't we have to communicate | |

184 | to the tape somehow, and might not those lines of communicate cross other | |

185 | lines of communication? Then I thought, well, it can assume that the tape | |

186 | is *inside* the state pointer somehow. And the rest followed more-or-less | |

187 | naturally.) | |

188 | ||

189 | We have not specified, either, whether this system should be implemented with | |

190 | a discrete simulation or a continuous simulation. Actually, either should | |

191 | work, I think; and a continuous simulation would be somewhat interesting, if | |

192 | only for the fact that most language interpreters are discrete. A continuous | |

193 | simulation would use real numbers to measure both duration and distance, and | |

194 | real analysis techniques to discover the evolution of the system. Motion of | |

195 | the hedgehogs would be genuinely continuous except for the points where their | |

196 | velocities change due to one hedgehog approaching another too closely, etc. | |

197 | ||

198 | Nor have we said much about the topology of the space all of these things are | |

199 | in. Naturally, the space could be infinite, or it could be mapped onto a | |

200 | torus so that the hedgehogs "wrap around" at the edges. (The fact that the | |

201 | space is finite is not a problem w.r.t. Turing-completeness, so long as there | |

202 | are still an infinite number of possible coordinates, i.e. the space of real | |

203 | or rational numbers; integers, though, would be problematic in a space of | |

204 | finite extent.) Or the space could be mapped onto the surface of a sphere, | |

205 | with appropriate modifications. | |

206 | ||

207 | We have also not constrained the sets of faery rings and hills to be finite; | |

208 | so we could have an infinite number of them in an infinite space — but for | |

209 | correspondence with a Turing machine, these should probably be restricted to | |

210 | infinite sets. (Otherwise, if you have, say, an uncountable set of faery | |

211 | rings, specified non-constructively, you could encode all possible | |

212 | computations just in them, and the behaviour of the hedgehogs becomes | |

213 | essentially moot.) | |

214 | ||

215 | The initial condition could either consist of the troupe having a leader | |

216 | hedgehog with an initial velocity, or a leader-elect hedgehog with an | |

217 | initially-selected faery ring to which it is attracted. The former is | |

218 | probably more "natural" for some definition of "natural". |