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; ribos.p65 - p65 assembly source for RIBOS:
; Demonstration of the VIC-II raster interrupt on the Commodore 64:
; Alter the border colour in the middle part of the screen only.
; Original (hardware IRQ vector) version.
; By Chris Pressey, Cat's Eye Technologies.
; This work has been placed in the public domain.

; ----- BEGIN ribos.p65 -----

; This source file is intented to be assembled to produce a PRG file
; which can be loaded into the C64's memory from a peripheral device.
; All C64 PRG files start with a 16-bit word which represents the
; location in memory to which they will be loaded.  We can provide this
; using p65 directives as follows:

.org 0
.word $C000

; Now the actual assembly starts (at memory location 49152.)

.org $C000

; ----- Constants -----

; We first define some symbolic constants to add some clarity to our
; references to hardware registers and other locations in memory.
; Descriptions of the registers follow those given in the 'Commodore 64
; Programmer's Reference Guide'.

; The CIA #1 chip.

.alias cia1             $dc00        ; pp. 328-331
.alias intr_ctrl        cia1+$d      ; "CIA Interrupt Control Register
                                     ; (Read IRQs/Write Mask)"

; The VIC-II chip.

.alias vic              $d000        ; Appendix G:
.alias vic_ctrl         vic+$11      ; "Y SCROLL MODE"
.alias vic_raster       vic+$12      ; "RASTER"
.alias vic_intr         vic+$19      ; "Interrupt Request's" (sic)
.alias vic_intr_enable  vic+$1a      ; "Interrupt Request MASKS"
.alias border_color     vic+$20      ; "BORDER COLOR"

; The address at which the IRQ vector is stored.

.alias irq_vec          $fffe        ; p. 411

; The zero-page address of the 6510's I/O register.

.alias io_ctrl          $01          ; p. 310, "6510 On-Chip 8-Bit
                                     ; Input/Output Register"

; KERNAL and BASIC ROMs, p. 320

.alias kernal           $e000
.alias basic            $a000

; Zero-page addresses that the memory-copy routine uses for
; scratch space: "FREKZP", p. 316

.alias zp               $fb
.alias stop_at          $fd

; ----- Main Routine -----

; This routine is intended to be called by the user (by, e.g., SYS 49152).
; It installs the raster interrupt handler and returns to the caller.

; Key to installing the interrupt handler is altering the IRQ service
; vector.  However, under normal circumstances, the address at which
; this vector is stored ($ffffe) maps to the C64's KERNAL ROM, which
; cannot be changed.  So, in order to alter the vector, we must enable
; the RAM that underlies the ROM (i.e. the RAM that maps to the same
; address space as the KERNAL ROM.)  If we were writing a bare-metal
; game, and didn't need any KERNAL routines or support, we could just
; switch it off.  But for this demo, we'd like the raster effect to
; occur in the background as we use BASIC and whatnot, so we need to
; continue to have access to the KERNAL ROM.  So what we do is copy the
; KERNAL ROM to the underlying RAM, then switch the RAM for the ROM.

                jsr copy_rom_to_ram

; Interrupts can occur at any time.  If one were to occur while we were
; changing the interrupt vector - for example, after we have stored the
; low byte of the address but before we have stored the high byte -
; unpredictable behaviour would result.  To be safe, we disable interrupts
; with the 'sei' instruction before changing anything.


; We obtain the address of the current IRQ service routine and save it
; in the variable 'saved_irq_vec'.

                lda irq_vec   ; save low byte
                sta saved_irq_vec
                lda irq_vec+1 ; save high byte
                sta saved_irq_vec+1

; We then store the address of our IRQ service routine in its place.

                lda #<our_service_routine
                sta irq_vec
                lda #>our_service_routine
                sta irq_vec+1

; Now we must specify the raster line at which the interrupt gets called.

                lda scanline
                sta vic_raster

; Note that the position of the raster line is given by a 9-bit value,
; and we can't just assume that, because the raster line we want is less
; than 256, that the high bit will automatically be set to zero, because
; it won't.  We have to explicitly set it high or low.  It is found as
; the most significant bit of a VIC-II control register which has many
; different functions, so we must be careful to preserve all other bits.

                lda vic_ctrl
                and #%01111111
                sta vic_ctrl

; Then we enable the raster interrupt on the VIC-II chip.

                lda #$01
                sta vic_intr_enable

; The article at everything2 suggests that we read the interrupt control
; port of the CIA #1 chip, presumably to acknowledge any pending IRQ and
; avoid the problem of having some sort of lockup due to a spurious IRQ.
; I've tested leaving this out, and the interrupt handler still seems get
; installed alright.  But, I haven't tested it very demandingly, and it's
; likely to open up a race condition that I just haven't encountered (much
; like if we were to forget to execute the 'sei' instruction, above.)
; So, to play it safe, we read the port here.

                lda intr_ctrl

; We re-enable interrupts to resume normal operation - normal, that is,
; except that our raster interrupt service routine will be called the next
; time the raster reaches the line stored in the 'vic_raster' register of
; the VIC-II chip.


; Finally, we return to the caller.


; ----- Raster Interrupt Service Routine ------


; This is an interrupt service routine (a.k.a. interrupt handler,) and as
; such, it can be called from anywhere.  Since the code that was interrupted
; likely cares deeply about the values in its registers, we must be careful
; to save any that we change, and restore them before switching back to it.
; In this case, we only affect the processor flags and the accumulator, so
; we push them onto the stack.


; The interrupt service routine on the Commodore 64 is very general-purpose,
; and may be invoked by any number of different kinds of interrupts.  We,
; however, only care about a certain kind - the VIC-II's raster interrupt.
; We check to see if the current interrupt was caused by the raster by
; looking at the low bit of the VIC-II interrupt register.  Note that we
; immediately store back the value found there before testing it.  This is
; to acknowledge to the VIC-II chip that we got the interrupt.  If we don't
; do this, it won't send us another interrupt next time.

                lda vic_intr
                sta vic_intr
                and #$01
                cmp #$01
                beq we_handle_it

; If the interrupt was not caused by the raster, we restore the values
; of the registers from the stack, and continue execution as normal with
; the existing interrupt service routine.

                jmp (saved_irq_vec)


; If we got here, the interrupt _was_ caused by the raster.  So, we get
; to do our thing.  To keep things simple, we just invert the border colour.

                lda border_color
                eor #$ff
                sta border_color

; Now, we make the interrupt trigger on a different scan line so that we'll
; invert the colour back to normal lower down on the screen.

                lda scanline
                eor #$ff
                sta scanline
                sta vic_raster

; Restore the registers that we saved at the beginning of this routine.


; Return to normal operation.  Note that we must issue an 'rti' instruction
; here, not 'rts', as we are returning from an interrupt.


; ----- Utility Routine: copy KERNAL ROM to underlying RAM -----


; This is somewhat more involved than I let on above.  The memory mapping
; facilities of the C64 are a bit convoluted.  The Programmer's Reference
; Guide states on page 261 that the way to map out the KERNAL ROM, and
; map in the RAM underlying it, is to set the HIRAM signal on the 6510's
; I/O line (which is memory-mapped to address $0001) to 0.  This is true.
; However, it is not the whole story: setting HIRAM to 0 *also* maps out
; BASIC ROM and maps in the RAM underlying *it*.  I suppose this makes
; sense from a design point of view; after all, BASIC uses the KERNAL, so
; there wouldn't be much sense leaving it mapped when the KERNAL is mapped
; out.  Anyway, what this means for us is that we must copy both of these
; ROMs to their respective underlying RAMs if we want to survive returning
; to BASIC.

                ldx #>basic
                ldy #$c0
                jsr copy_block

                ldx #>kernal
                ldy #$00
                jsr copy_block

; To actually substitute the RAM for the ROM in the memory map, we
; set HIRAM (the second least significant bit) to 0.

                lda io_ctrl
                and #%11111101
                sta io_ctrl


; ----- Utility Routine: copy a ROM memory block to the underlying RAM -----

; Input: x register = high byte of start address (low byte = #$00)
;        y register = high byte of end address (stops at address $yy00 - 1)

; This subroutine is a fairly straightforward memory copy loop.  A somewhat
; counter-intuitive feature is that we immediately store each byte in the
; same location where we just read it from.  We can do this because, even
; when the KERNAL or BASIC ROM is mapped in, writes to those locations still
; go to the underlying RAM.

copy_block:     stx zp+1
                sty stop_at
                ldy #$00
                sty zp

copy_loop:      lda (zp), y
                sta (zp), y
                cpy #$00
                bne copy_loop
                ldx zp+1
                stx zp+1
                cpx stop_at
                bne copy_loop

; ----- Variables -----

; 'scanline' stores the raster line that we want the interrupt to trigger
; on; it gets loaded into the VIC-II's 'vic_raster' register.  

scanline: .byte %01010101

; We also reserve space to store the address of the interrupt service
; routine that we are replacing in the IRQ vector, so that we can transfer
; control to it at the end of our routine.

.space saved_irq_vec 2

; ----- END of ribos.p65 -----